The Project Life Cycle Framework leverages Project Management as the overarching process which coordinates the underlying life cycle processes of project funding approval, acquisition and system development. At various stages in the project life cycle, each of the underlying processes may occur and overlap with each other based on a variety of factors including control agency requirements. Project approval and funding must be obtained prior to completion of the acquisition activities and before any activities begin during the system development phases. These life cycle activities, while discrete, are often intertwined due to certain dependencies on each other. The exact timing of these activities will be based on organizational, project, and control agency requirements.
Project Management Life Cycle The Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) is the overarching discipline used by the industry for the acquisition, and maintenance of software intensive systems covering the full range of life cycle activities from initiation to closeout.
Initiation: In the Initiation phase the overall project parameters are defined, the Project Concept Statement and Project Charter are developed and approved to start the project. Planning: The Planning phase includes all the activities necessary for the project office to acquire the resources needed to establish the project staffing, project infrastructure and stakeholder accountability, along with all the project plans.
Execution: During this phase, the project office executes all of the plans, processes, and procedures summarized and referenced in the Project Management Plan with particular attention to the production and quality of deliverables.
Monitoring & Controlling: This activity occurs during all phases of the project and includes: monitoring of resources, quality, risks and issues, schedule, costs, requirements status, and overall project status.
Closing: The closeout phase includes all the activities necessary for the project office to bring closure to the project effort, either upon system acceptance and transfer to its support organization, or upon system retirement or replacement.
Project Funding Approval Life Cycle The Project Funding Approval Life Cycle (PFAL) describes the process by which departments receive authorization to undertake an Information Technology Project. The purpose of this process is to establish the business case for the investment of resources in the project and to analyze and justify its costs and benefits. The approach will vary depending upon whether it is federal funding or a cooperative agreement is requested, both of which require the creation of specific project and funding approval documents. Control agency project and funding approval must be received before beginning work on the project or expending any funds.
Acquisition Life Cycle The Acquisition Life Cycle (ALC) begins with the decision to acquire a product/service. It includes all the activities necessary for the IT Project to solicit, evaluate, and award a contract to a vendor for a new/revised system after obtaining approvals and funding for development, implementation, and ongoing operations of the system. The Financial Management group typically has oversight responsibility for the Acquisition Life Cycle.
Acquisition Planning: This typically begins when the need for a product is identified and ends when the Request for Proposal (RFP) is released. The IT Project typically works with the Financial Management group to coordinate the release of the RFP.
Contracting: The Contracting phase begins upon release of the RFP. It includes the evaluation of vendor proposals and ends in the selection of a vendor meeting the RFP requirements. The phase ends with execution of the contract.
Product Acceptance: This is the contract management phase. The vendor?s efforts are monitored to ensure compliance with contract requirements and product acceptance criteria. The phase ends when all contract terms are fulfilled.
System Development Life Cycle The System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a framework used in project management that describes the stages involved in a system development project. The SDLC is a structured, integrated approach that is characterized by a sequence of phases in which each phase is incomplete until the appropriate deliverables are produced. This SDLC feature ensures a consistent approach and control throughout the system development project and includes six phases:
Requirements Analysis: The Requirements Analysis phase is focused on understanding and documenting the user's business needs to a level of sufficient detail to allow for system design.
Design: The Design phase involves the interpretation of the system requirements identified in the analysis phase into a unified system design that describes the characteristics of the system to be built.
Development: In the Development phase, the design specifications are transformed into a complete and integrated system. All system components are validated for compliance to requirements and design.
Test: In the Test phase, the various components of the developed system are integrated and methodically tested to validate that all identified requirements have been satisfied prior to system implementation.
Implementation: In the Implementation phase, the system is installed in the production environment and continues until the production system is operating in accordance with the requirements.
Transfer to O&M: During the transition to Operations and Maintenance (O&M) phase, the production system is operational and the system operations are transitioned to the support organization for routine maintenance and performance monitoring.